Even the simplest cells are irreducibly complex. They contain molecular machinery that will not work unless all its many independent parts are in place and operational. Darwinian Evolution by random mutations and natural selection is completely inadequate to explain how a single irreducibly complex cell can come into being, much less work with awesome organizational precision.
How does the cell know which amino acids and in what sequence to build the right protein molecules at the right time? What sort of creature will result? Will it be human, raccoon, lizard, porpoise, elephant, ant, or eagle? If human, will it be male or female? Will it grow up to be tall or short? What color of skin, hair, and eyes will it have? What intellectual, artistic, or personality proclivities will be inherited? The complexity of all life is mind-boggling. While the microbiology of every tiny living cell is incredible in its irreducible complexity, a human being is trillions of times more irreducibly complex.
Organizing the chain and sequence of amino acids that builds protein molecules, cells, and life in all its variety requires information, a set of complex instructions. That information is contained in the DNA molecules. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid.
It is actually a double molecule containing an intricately folded six-foot ribbon of coded instructions for organizing and sequencing twenty different amino acids for building cells according to the precise requirements of their function. DNA molecules are organized by function into chromosomes. Humans normally have twenty-three pairs of chromosomes.
The thin ribbon of the DNA molecule contains millions of coded sequences in the form of four bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Microbiologists and geneticists abbreviate them A, C, G, and T respectively. Thus, the information and instructions for building life is written in sequences of a four-digit code. The DNA double molecule might be considered analogous to a library of instructions for the cell. Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, has remarked how similar DNA is to computer programs. Genes are small segments of the DNA ribbon pertaining to specific building instructions such as color of eyes, intelligence potential, and thousands upon thousands of other specifications. The human chromosomes contain about 20,000 genes.
Another marvelous aspect of the high-tech nature of DNA and cellular structure is that molecular machines must retrieve DNA instructions from the precise gene area, replicate them, transport them to the required compartment of the cell, and then translate the base code into the amino acid sequences for construction of the proper protein molecules. We are “fearfully and wonderfully made!”—Psalm 139:4.
DNA science has become very visible in the last three decades because the DNA signature of each human is so unique that that it can be used to identify persons with a probability of error of one in billions. Criminals can be identified from DNA traces left at the scene of a crime. Once unidentifiable bodies can now be identified by comparing DNA samples with near relatives. Paternity can be established in questionable cases. Even distant ancestral connections can be determined with a high degree of precision.
For example, here is a short DNA sequence from my mother’s female DNA chromosome, passed along her female line of descent from generation to generation: CTTCAGGGTC. The T that is the next to last base in this sequence, identified by geneticists as position 16519, is a mutation from C. This helps identify her female line as being among the early Celtic or pre-Celtic settlers of Britain. DNA researchers also postulate a “theoretical Eve,” the ancestress of all living human females. Mutations called M253 and CTS7362 in my own male Y-DNA chromosome identify my father’s male line as coming to the British Isles from Scandinavia either directly or via Normandy. If you are interested in DNA as a genealogical tool, information can be found at www.familytreedna.com.
DNA studies have also become useful in medical technology. The DNA double-molecule is so complex and contains so much genetic information that scientists have only seen a tiny tip of an iceberg of information and potential knowledge. However, DNA may not be the only information stored in living entities. For example, conveying DNA information from one part of the human body to another or from the brain to many parts of the body may require other information systems not yet discovered.
Information is always a combination of complexity and specific purpose. Communication by words, alphabets, symbols, numbers, computer programs, diagrams, blueprints, and the storage of all these in libraries and various devices have only one known and conceivable origin—intelligent design. We are familiar with the intelligent design of information through human agents. But what of the Intelligent Design strongly suggested by DNA information? Darwin’s theory of evolution cannot come close to explaining this. Random mutation and natural selection are completely inadequate in explaining the molecular complexity of the cell and the intricately coded information of DNA. DNA has every characteristic of Intelligent Design.
Few biochemists today believe that life was an accident. Throwing together the chemical elements of life, adding water, and stirring thoroughly does not work whether you heat it, run electrical currents through it, or bombard it with atomic particles. There is a galactic gap between the natural laws of chemical bonding and the degree of self-organization necessary for life. Whatever has a beginning must have a cause. No natural explanation is sufficient to explain the cause of life. Complex and comprehensive information is required. Information may be stored on physical devices or DNA molecules, but information itself is not physical. It must come from intelligence. Without an Intelligent Designer and Creator, nothing happens.
Other DNA and genetic findings indicate that there seem to be limits to variation at both the molecular and species level. In addition, genetic transmission within species appears to be subject to a regression toward the mean. This is to say, the genetic trend within a species or subspecies continually gravitates back towards average or normal. For example, two intelligent parents tend to have intelligent children with IQs averaging a bit lower than their own, and the not-so-bright tend to have children who are on average more intelligent than themselves. The average measure of a genetic trait in a population tends toward stability. Short-term changes in the mean tend to revert over time to longer-term means. In addition, most mutations, especially large ones, are unfavorable to the organism’s survival and reproduction. All this tends toward genetic stability or stasis. Stasis is exactly what the fossil record shows instead of evolution.
The public and most educational and news media are not aware of it, but molecular biology and DNA research have dealt a deathblow to Darwinism. Darwinism may be scientifically and intellectually breathing its last, but unfortunately it is still alive and well in government, education, and the mainstream media. Despite its evidential bankruptcy and contradictions to common sense logic and rudimentary probability, Darwinist evolution is now taught as fact, rather than theory, in public schools. Although it is not now even a very plausible theory, it remains an important pillar supporting the humanistic materialism that pervades both left and right in American society. It is, however, notably most pervasive, visible, and dearly held on the left. As Ann Coulter has written,” Darwinist evolution is the creation myth of modern liberalism.” It holds its own now by the social coercion of political correctness and various other totalitarian methods for suppressing and shouting down the truth. But truth crushed to the ground is still truth. Life requires Intelligent Design and an Intelligent Designer.